6sm MONITORING SANITATION MARKETING
Level: Country, subnational and community
T3

 

Matching demand with supply

Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS) and developing local markets (Sanitation Marketing) are complementary. Both demand and supply are needed to trigger and sustain long-term safe latrine usage for all (see Guidance Note 10 Sanitation Marketing and CATS: How do we link approaches?).

As people become motivated to change their sanitation behaviours, they must have access to durable, affordable sanitation solutions. Sanitation Marketing (SanMark) uses market-based approaches to stimulate demand and private sector supply that can, under the right conditions, address the need for sustained local supply of affordable, desirable sanitation products and services. SanMark focuses on reaching low-income households currently underserved by markets (see Guidance Note 1 Situation Analysis: How do I know if Sanitation Marketing will work in my country?).

 

Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (TSSM)

Drawing on the Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (TSSM) experience in Asia and Africa (2007–2010), ideas for four levels of sanitation marketing monitoring indicators are suggested (Source: From Lilongwe Workshop August 2012: ‘Group outputs on Monitoring Indicators: Post triggering and Post-ODF’, page 8 of 17).

National level:

  • Does the national sector policy or strategy include a component, such as improving the availability of affordable sanitation goods and services in local markets, for all classes of consumer?
  • Are budgets allocated for national/regional market research (e.g. formative research with consumers, supply-chain assessment with providers, marketing strategy development, capacity-building of private sector providers to implement marketing strategy developed or Behaviour Change Communication campaigns)?
  • Are management skills made available to utilize these allocations?

Local government level:

  • Is local government aware of the marketing strategy developed, including product options, price and payment options, place (Who will deliver to consumers and where?) and promotion (Who will inform consumers about options and how?)?
  • Are post-triggering follow-up providers equipped with communication aids and training for informed-choice facilitation in communities?
  • Are a sufficient number of trained sanitation service providers available in the district or community?
  • Are a sufficient number of sanitation improvement options available to poorer segments of consumers in the district?
  • Are local government mechanisms in place to facilitate an interface between triggered communities and trained service providers?

Community level:

  • Are community households aware of available product and payment options?
  • Is there a sufficient extent of variations in types and costs of sanitation facilities built in a community?
  • Are Behaviour Change Communication messages seen or heard and remembered?

Local service providers’ level:

  • Are an appropriate number of orders received and fulfilled?
  • Is a plan in place to deal with any backlogs and bottlenecks encountered?

 

Goals and indicators

Sanitation Marketing has two main goals:

  1. to increase household investment in, and sustained usage of, improved latrines;
  2. to increase market availability of affordable, desirable, improved latrine products and services.

To measure success, both demand and supply indicators need to be monitored over time, together with indicators of the enabling environment for market growth and sustainability.

Demand-side indicators:

  • Track changes in household improved latrine purchase, ownership, and usage over time using existing monitoring tools.
  • May need additional monitoring to help guide programme implementation related to product/service awareness, access to local supply, intention to purchase and post-purchase satisfaction.

Supply-side indicators:

  • Monitor businesses to measure changes in private sector supply of household sanitation services explicitly.
  • Involve measuring sales growth and other attributes of success and business sustainability to track expansion and identify evolving supply-side barriers.

Enabling environment indicators:

  • Monitor the roles of market facilitators, particularly local government, but also government at other levels as well as others, such as NGO partners who are helping to facilitate the market.
  • Can help to assess the sustainability of SanMark interventions and when external support can be phased out.
  • Include equity indicators by disaggregating household results from the start, which makes it easier to assess uptake among different sub-groups, including the poorest and other vulnerable populations.

Drawing on the Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (TSSM) experience in Asia and Africa (2007–2010), ideas for four levels of sanitation marketing monitoring indicators are suggested (Source: From Lilongwe Workshop August 2012: ‘Group outputs on Monitoring Indicators: Post triggering and Post-ODF’, page 8 of 17).

National level:

  • Does the national sector policy or strategy include a component, such as improving the availability of affordable sanitation goods and services in local markets, for all classes of consumer?
  • Are budgets allocated for national/regional market research (e.g. formative research with consumers, supply-chain assessment with providers, marketing strategy development, capacity-building of private sector providers to implement marketing strategy developed or Behaviour Change Communication campaigns)?
  • Are management skills made available to utilize these allocations?

Local government level:

  • Is local government aware of the marketing strategy developed, including product options, price and payment options, place (Who will deliver to consumers and where?) and promotion (Who will inform consumers about options and how?)?
  • Are post-triggering follow-up providers equipped with communication aids and training for informed-choice facilitation in communities?
  • Are a sufficient number of trained sanitation service providers available in the district or community?
  • Are a sufficient number of sanitation improvement options available to poorer segments of consumers in the district?
  • Are local government mechanisms in place to facilitate an interface between triggered communities and trained service providers?

Community level:

  • Are community households aware of available product and payment options?
  • Is there a sufficient extent of variations in types and costs of sanitation facilities built in a community?
  • Are Behaviour Change Communication messages seen or heard and remembered?

Local service providers’ level:

  • Are an appropriate number of orders received and fulfilled?
  • Is a plan in place to deal with any backlogs and bottlenecks encountered?

UNICEF’s SanMark Guidance Note 9 Monitoring and Evaluation How do we measure sanitation marketing progress? sets out:

  • common indicators for measuring progress in Sanitation Marketing;
  • how to design monitoring frameworks and data collection tools;
  • practical tips for integrating SanMark monitoring into existing sanitation programme monitoring.

The Guidance Note suggests indicators and mechanisms for monitoring SanMark against the key questions below (see indicators and mechanisms columns in the tables on pages 2, 4, 5, and 7 of the UNICEF Guidance Note 9:Monitoring and Evaluation).

 

Outcome: Increase in improved latrine uptake and usage among target populations

  • How are SanMark interventions accelerating access to improved sanitation services?
  • Who can access improved services?
  • Are interventions increasing access and use for the poor and poorest?

Objective 1: Increase ability to facilitate and regulate the sanitation market

  • Are national and subnational governments increasing capacity to monitor, facilitate and regulate new markets?
  • How do government and other partners support businesses to expand services to low-income households?
  • Is external technical support to government and the private sector demand driven? Is there an exit strategy?

Objective 2: Improve market supply of affordable, desirable products

  • How well do products and services meet the needs of low-income consumers?
  • Are supply-chain businesses increasing availability of products and services to low-income households?
  • How financially sustainable and viable are sanitation business activities? What is the likelihood that activities will continue over time?
  • What are characteristics of high-performing businesses? What are incentives for businesses to enter and expand sanitation service provision?

Objective 3: Increase consumer demand for, and investment in, improved sanitation

  • How are SanMark interventions increasing household awareness, intention and motivation to invest in sanitation improvements?
  • How effective and sustainable are demand-creation and promotional activities?
  • How are financial barriers to investment being addressed through the market and/or complimentary financing mechanisms?

 

Tips for expanding monitoring frameworks

The Guidance Note gives a summary of three tips for expanding monitoring frameworks.

Tip 1: Build on and harmonize with existing monitoring efforts

Monitoring household access and behavioural outcomes should be part of broader efforts to improve and systematize community-level monitoring systems, particularly at post-triggering and post-ODF stages of the CATS process. Avoid duplicating efforts: if different agencies are supporting implementation of SanMark and CATS, UNICEF can support the development of a common national framework and procedures. Consider how community-level data will be fed into the government’s regional and national databases. This may include exploring the role that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools, such as mobile phones, might play in monitoring systems.

Tip 2: Budget and plan for the development of a sales and business database

Since market supply-side and business monitoring may be a fairly new area, consider recruiting technical input from small business development service providers to help to design and test sales and business monitoring tools at the start of your SanMark programme.

This can be done as part of business development and training activities (see Guidance Note 4). Local government staff or other partners can do on-going collection of sales-monitoring data. However, it is probably best to avoid the use of natural leaders or CATS facilitators in this sort of supply-side monitoring, which happens at a much wider geographic scale and requires specific business development skills. Where possible, consider entering SanMark supply-side data (e.g. on sales) into existing central databases to enable trend and spatial analysis.

Tip 3: Budget and plan to measure equity

Whether through community mapping or household surveys, the impact of sanitation interventions – including CATS and SanMark – on the lives of the poor must be tracked. Access and usage by wealth quintile or other poverty classification system should be measured over time to ensure that gains made in achieving ODF are not lost and that the poor are not left on the bottom rung of the sanitation ladder.

Tracking equity will involve extra steps and resources, so budget additional resources for baseline and follow-up monitoring. This includes building equity monitoring into WASH sustainability checks.